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AMERICAN FORENSICS ASSOCIATION-NATIONAL INDIVIDUAL EVENTS TOURNAMENT

 

EVENT DESCRIPTIONS

 

For Use in AFA-NIET District IX:

Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, E. Montana, and El Paso County, TX

  

Revised and Edited

by

Dr. Mary Trejo, The University of Texas at El Paso

 

for the

 

AFA-NIET District IX Committee

  

Updated Fall 2004



     Poetry Interpretation:  A selection or selections of poetry of literary merit, which may be drawn from more than one source.  Play cuttings and prose works are prohibited.  Use of manuscript is required.  Maximum time limit is 10 minutes including introduction.

     Competitors are reminded of AFA-NIET General Rule 6-k, which states:  "Coaches and/or students must have available at the District and National NIET tournaments copies of all interpretive and original events used at the tournaments."  Further, the AFA Code of Ethics specifies that "Competitors are expected to bring to tournaments a copy of the original inclusive text along with the student's script."

 

     Poetry interpretation may be based on one selection that can be performed as an individual unit, or on two or more selections arranged in a theme-inspired program.  The poetry chosen should be of literary merit, and should possess a clear point in that it poses a question, presents an issue, or explicates or clarifies a conflict.  Additionally, the chosen poetry may be focused on exploration of the realms of sight, sound, or image.  The poetry selected should include some recognized poetic techniques including but not limited to metaphor, alliteration, repetition, and highly condensed levels of meaning.  Prosaic material should be avoided.  If multiple selections are used, they should be interwoven into a cohesive and carefully designed and organized whole by the linking of author(s) or of theme(s) inherent to the literature; an intellectually unified program is the desired result.  Credit should be given for finding fresh literature, realizing that it is difficult to provide an individual interpretation of literature which is frequently performed.  The selection of material for which a definitive interpretation has been widely seen, as in elimination rounds of recent national tournaments, should be discouraged.

     Multiple characters may be developed to animate the interpretation; these should be distinct from each other, embodying definite gender, age, height, and other distinguishing characteristics which enliven authentic characterizations.  Reliance on caricature or stereotype should be resisted unless justified by the literature.  Credit should be given to unique and interesting delivery choices which enhance the poetry.  Delivery should be either natural and believable or appropriate to the literature; in all cases, it must be unaffected and well executed.

     Allowing for the demonstration of excellence in public speaking as well as in organizational and interpretive skills, the performance should include an original memorized introduction composed by the student, delivered, with manuscript closed, in accordance with the standards of good public speaking.  Any transitions should be smooth and add clarity and coherence.  The introduction should enhance the interpretation by relating the literature to the audience, providing necessary information about the genesis or theme of the poetry.  The use of multiple poems or authors and their thematic linkage should be clarified.

     Performances ranging from eight to ten minutes are recommended; deviations from the time limit should be penalized appropriately according to the severity of the violation.



 

     Drama Interpretation:  A cutting that represents one or more characters from a play or plays of literary merit.  This material may be drawn from stage, screen or radio.  Use of manuscript is required.  Maximum time limit is 10 minutes including introduction.

   Competitors are reminded of AFA-NIET General Rule 6-k, which states:  "Coaches and/or students must have available at the District and National NIET tournaments copies of all interpretive and original events used at the tournaments."  Further, the AFA Code of Ethics specifies that "Competitors are expected to bring to tournaments a copy of the original inclusive text along with the student's script."

 

     Drama interpretation should be based on a cutting from a play written for stage, screen, or radio performance; alternately, cuttings from two or more plays may be arranged in a theme-inspired program.  All selections should be of literary merit and suitable to the performer and the audience.  The cutting should develop some relevant and significant theme, conveying a spectrum of emotion, conflict and resolution through multiple levels of thought and interpretation.  Further, the cutting should be loyal to the playwright's original script.  Credit should be given for finding fresh literature, realizing that it is difficult to provide an individual interpretation of literature which is frequently performed.  The selection of material for which a definitive interpretation has been widely seen, as in elimination rounds of recent national tournaments, should be discouraged.

     Multiple characters may be developed and used to aid plot and action.  Characterizations should be consistent with performance theme and style, and should be distinct from each other, embodying definite gender, age, height, and other distinguishing characteristics which enliven authentic characterizations.  Caricatures or stereotypes should not be penalized if appropriate to the literature.  Delivery should be unaffected, fluent and create a sense of presence for the audience.

     Allowing for the demonstration of excellence in public speaking as well as in organizational and interpretive skills, the performance should include an original memorized introduction composed by the student, delivered, with manuscript closed, in accordance with the standards of good public speaking.  Any transitions should be smooth and add clarity and coherence.  The introduction should set the stage, enhancing the interpretation by relating the literature to the audience, providing necessary information about the genesis or theme of the drama.  The use of alternative performance or interpretation styles should be justified, and multiple characters and any use of multiple plays or authors as well as  their thematic linkage should be clarified.

     Performances ranging from 8 to 10 minutes are recommended; deviations from the time limit should be penalized appropriately according to the severity of the violation.


 


 

     Prose Interpretation:  A selection or selections of prose material of literary merit, which may be drawn from more than one source.  Play cuttings and poetry are prohibited.  Use of manuscript is required.  Maximum time is 10 minutes including introduction.

   Competitors are reminded of AFA-NIET General Rule 6-k, which states:  "Coaches and/or students must have available at the District and National NIET tournaments copies of all interpretive and original events used at the tournaments."  Further, the AFA Code of Ethics specifies that "Competitors are expected to bring to tournaments a copy of the original inclusive text along with the student's script."

 

     Prose interpretation may be based on one selection which can be performed as an individual unit, or on a combination of selections drawn from short stories, novels, essays, or other prose material and arranged in a theme-inspired program.  Material from any other literary genre may not be chosen.  The prose chosen should be of literary merit and suitable to the performer and audience.  The performance should possess a clear point in that it poses a question, presents an issue, or explicates or clarifies a conflict.  Care should be taken in designing the cutting to include essential plot action and retain the original intent of the author.

     Where narration is present, it should be understood that the characterization of the narrator becomes the focus of prose interpretation, serving as the thread which ties the performance together by indicating a distinctive projection of attitude.  Multiple characters may be developed to animate the interpretation; these should be distinct from each other, embodying definite gender, age, height, and other distinguishing characteristics which enliven authentic characterizations.  Reliance on caricature or stereotype should be resisted unless justified by the literature.  Credit should be given to unique and interesting delivery choices which enhance the prose.  Delivery should be either natural and believable or appropriate to the literature; in all cases, it must be unaffected and well executed.

     Allowing for the demonstration of excellence in public speaking as well as in organizational and interpretive skills, the performance should include an original memorized introduction composed by the student, delivered, with manuscript closed, in accordance with the standards of good public speaking.  Any transitions should be smooth and add clarity and coherence.  The introduction should enhance the interpretation by relating the literature to the audience, providing necessary information about the genesis or theme of the prose.  The use of multiple selections or authors and their thematic linkage should be clarified.

     Performances ranging from 8 to 10 minutes are recommended; deviations from the time limit should be penalized appropriately according to the severity of the violation.



 

     Dramatic Duo:  A cutting from a play or plays, humorous or serious, involving the portrayal of two or more characters presented by two individuals.  This material may be drawn from stage, screen, or radio.  This is not an acting event; thus, no costumes, props, lighting, etc., are to be used.  Presentation is from the manuscript and the focus should be off-stage and not to each other.  Maximum time limit is 10 minutes including introduction.

 

     Competitors are reminded of AFA-NIET General Rule 6-k, which states:  "Coaches and/or students must have available at the District and National NIET tournaments copies of all interpretive and original events used at the tournaments."  Further, the AFA Code of Ethics specifies that "Competitors are expected to bring to tournaments a copy of the original inclusive text along with the student's script."

 

     Dramatic duo interpretation should be based on a cutting from a play written for stage, screen, or radio performance.  The drama should be of literary merit and suitable to the performer and the audience.  The cutting should develop some relevant and significant theme, conveying a spectrum of emotion, conflict and resolution through multiple levels of thought and interpretation.  Care should be taken in designing the cutting to include essential plot action and retain the original intent of the author.  Credit should be given for finding fresh literature, realizing that it is difficult to provide an individual interpretation of literature which is frequently performed.  The selection of material for which a definitive interpretation has been widely seen, as in elimination rounds of recent national tournaments, should be discouraged.

     Multiple characters may be developed and used to aid plot and action.  Characterizations should be consistent with performance theme and style, and should be distinct from each other, embodying definite gender, age, height, and other distinguishing characteristics which enliven authentic characterizations.  Caricatures or stereotypes should not be penalized if appropriate to the literature.  Delivery should be unaffected, fluent and create a sense of presence for the audience.  Off-stage focuses between the two performers should be maintained.  If used, blocking, or physical turns, steps, etc., should be designed for transitional purposes, as opposed to simulating the full blocking conditions of stage performance; any movement should be executed smoothly and accurately, and should enhance, not detract, from the presentation.  Both partners should compliment each other well both physically and verbally and should both be involved in a substantial portion of the presentation.

     Allowing for the demonstration of excellence in public speaking as well as in organizational and interpretive skills, the performance should include an original memorized introduction composed by the student, delivered, with manuscript closed, in accordance with the standards of good public speaking.  Any transitions should be smooth and add clarity and coherence.  The introduction should set the stage, enhancing the interpretation by relating the literature to the audience, providing necessary information about the genesis or theme of the drama.  The use of alternative performance or interpretation styles should be justified.

     Performances ranging from 8 to 10 minutes are recommended; deviations from the time limit should be penalized appropriately according to the severity of the violation.


 


 

     Program Oral Interpretation:  A program of thematically-linked selections of literary merit, chosen from two or three recognized genres of competitive interpretation (prose/poetry/drama).  A substantial portion of the total time must be devoted to each of the genres used in the program.  Different genre means the material must appear in separate pieces of literature (e. g., A poem included in a short story that appears only in that short story does not constitute a poetry genre).  Only one selection may be original.  Use of manuscript is required.  Maximum time limit is 10 minutes including original introduction and/or transitions.

 

     Competitors are reminded of AFA-NIET General Rule 6-k, which states:  "Coaches and/or students must have available at the District and National NIET tournaments copies of all interpretive and original events used at the tournaments."  Further, the AFA Code of Ethics specifies that "Competitors are expected to bring to tournaments a copy of the original inclusive text along with the student's script."

 

     Program oral interpretation should be based on multiple selections drawn from at least two genres, or types, of literature and arranged in a theme-inspired program.  Thus, one performer may elect to combine materials from the genres of poetry and prose, while another might choose to utilize drama, prose, and poetry.  All the literature chosen should be of literary merit.  A central theme for the program should be clearly delineated and a balance between the genres of literature maintained.  In developing a creative, relevant theme program, attention should be given to the design and organization of a cohesive and carefully conceived whole by the linking of authors and/or ideas inherent to the literature; an intellectually unified program is the desired result.  Credit should be given for finding fresh literature, realizing that it is difficult to provide an individual interpretation of literature which is frequently performed.  The selection of material for which a definitive interpretation has been widely seen, as in elimination rounds of recent national tournaments, should be discouraged.

     Multiple characters may be developed to animate the interpretation; these should be distinct from each other, embodying definite gender, age, height, and other distinguishing characteristics which enliven authentic characterizations.  Reliance on caricature or stereotype should be resisted unless justified by the literature.  Credit should be given to unique and interesting delivery choices which enhance the program.  Delivery should be either natural and believable or appropriate to the literature; in all cases, it must be unaffected and well executed.

     Allowing for the demonstration of excellence in public speaking as well as in organizational and interpretive skills, the performance should include an original memorized introduction composed by the student, delivered, with manuscript closed, in accordance with the standards of good public speaking.  Any transitions should be smooth and add clarity and coherence.  The introduction should set the stage, enhancing the interpretation by relating the literature to the audience, providing necessary information and analysis to clarify the chosen theme.  The use of alternative performance or interpretation styles should be justified, and multiple characters as well as multiple works and/or authors as well as their thematic linkage should be clarified.

     Performances ranging from 8 to 10 minutes are recommended; deviations from the time limit should be penalized appropriately according to the severity of the violation.


 

 

Impromptu Speaking:  An impromptu speech, serious in nature, with topic selections varied by round and by section.  Topics will be of a proverb nature.  Speakers will have a total of 7 minutes for both preparation and speaking.  Timing commences with the acceptance of the topics sheet.  Limited notes are permitted.  Each speaker in a given section will choose to speak from one of the same two topics offered.

 

     An impromptu speech is intended to demonstrate the student's ability to provide a well-reasoned analysis of a designated quotation using a limited amount of preparation time.  Each speech should be unique and spontaneously created by the speaker.  All portions of the quotation should be dealt with, using definition and explication when necessary, in providing a comprehensive discussion of the topic.  The content should reflect the entire sense of the quotation, not merely individual words in the topic.  The speaker may take a stand, advance an argument, and/or discuss the context and meaning of the quotation, and/or provide a practical application or applications of the quotation.  Credit should be given to speakers who creatively address the less obvious implications of the quotation, and provide new information to the listeners.  Credit should also be given to speakers who go beyond merely personal examples, the reliance on which may be avoided through the citation and analysis of examples drawn from current events or areas of knowledge such as history, philosophy, literature, and the arts.

     All principles of effective presentation should be demonstrated.  The structure should include a readily identifiable introduction, body, and conclusion.  A memorable introduction should be followed by an exact statement of the quotation and its author; a careful analysis of the quotation should lead to an organizational preview.  Credit should be given to imaginative and effective organizational structure.  Clear transitions should be made between main points so that the organizational structure is cumulatively reviewed and previewed.  An adequate summary should be provided, followed by a memorable conclusion.  Effective language should be utilized.  In addition, the nonverbal components should be effectively demonstrated, such as direct and communicative eye contact and good posture and poise.  Gestures should be motivated, comfortable, and enhance, not distract, from the presentation.  The speech should be free of breaks in fluency, and credit should be given for speaking without notes.  Poor enunciation or incorrect grammar or pronunciation should be penalized.  In short, the speaker should make effective use of sound public speaking conventions.

     Judges should be prepared to time speakers, and should explain to each speaker how timing will be conducted.  Preparation time elapsed is usually announced verbally by the judge at 1 minute or 30 second intervals; time elapsed after the speech has begun is usually indicated by hand signals.  The use of preparation time as well as the distribution of time overall are crucial elements in impromptu speaking; credit should be given to the speaker who uses a minimum amount of preparation time and appropriately distributes use of time in developing the major points of the speech.  A maximum utilization of time should be rewarded; however, the total time used in preparation and in speaking should not exceed 7 minutes.  Speeches which do not utilize enough time and those which are in excess of 7 minutes should be penalized appropriately according to the severity of the violation.



 

Extemporaneous Speaking:  Contestants will be given three topics in the general area of current events, choose one, and have 30 minutes to prepare a speech that is the original work of the student.  Maximum time limit for the speech is 7 minutes.  Limited notes are permitted.  Students will speak in listed order.  Posting of topics will be staggered.

     An extemporaneous speech is intended to demonstrate the student's ability to provide a well-reasoned answer to a designated question through the use of analysis and evidence while demonstrating knowledge of the topic area.  Each speech should be unique and spontaneously created by the speaker.  The question should be confronted completely in its full meaning, using definition and explication when necessary, in providing a comprehensive discussion of the topic.  The judge should give consideration to the three question choices available to the speaker, and credit should be given to the selection of more difficult topics.  Multiple citations from various sources are recommended to reinforce the speaker's informational, analytical, and argumentative purposes.

     All principles of effective presentation should be demonstrated.  The structure should include a readily identifiable introduction, body, and conclusion.  A memorable introduction should be followed by an exact statement of the question; a careful analysis of the question should lead to an organizational preview.  Credit should be given to imaginative and effective organizational structure.  Clear transitions should be made between main points so that the organizational structure is cumulatively reviewed and previewed.  An adequate summary should be provided, followed by a memorable conclusion.  Effective language should be utilized.  In addition, the nonverbal components should be effectively demonstrated, such as direct and communicative eye contact and good posture and poise.  Gestures should be motivated, comfortable, and enhance, not distract, from the presentation.  The speech should be free of breaks in fluency, and credit should be given for speaking without notes.  Poor enunciation or incorrect grammar or pronunciation should be penalized.  In short, the speaker should make effective use of sound public speaking conventions.

     Judges should be prepared to time speakers, and should explain to each speaker how timing will be conducted.  Time elapsed is usually indicated by hand signals.  The appropriate distribution of time in regard to the major points of the speech is a crucial element in extemporaneous speaking.  A maximum utilization of time should be rewarded; however, the total time used in speaking should not exceed 7 minutes.  Speeches which do not utilize enough time and those which are in excess of  7 minutes should be penalized appropriately according to the severity of the violation.



 

     Informative Speaking:  An original, factual speech by the student on a realistic subject to fulfill the general aim to inform the audience.  Audio-visual aids may or may not be used to supplement and reinforce the message.  Multiple sources should be used and cited in the development of the speech.  Minimal notes are permitted.  Maximum time limit is 10 minutes including introduction.

     Competitors are reminded of AFA-NIET General Rule 6-k, which states:  "Coaches and/or students must have available at the District and National NIET tournaments copies of all interpretive and original events used at the tournaments."  Further, the AFA Code of Ethics specifies that "Competitors are expected to bring to tournaments a copy of the original inclusive text along with the student's script."

     An informative speech should be an original work of the student designed to raise the information level of the audience.  Thus, it should provide new information on a familiar topic or should introduce the audience to a new or unusual topic.  Early in the presentation, the speaker should establish some reason for providing the new information.  The speech should contain a variety of credible source citations.  Visual aids, if used, should be neat, well conceived, and effectively incorporated into the presentation without dominating the speech; no advantage should be given to expensive and elaborate visuals.

     All principles of effective presentation should be demonstrated.  The structure should include a readily identifiable introduction, body, and conclusion.  A memorable introduction should be followed by a thesis statement and an organizational preview.  Clear transitions should be made between main points so that the organizational structure is cumulatively reviewed and previewed.  An adequate summary should be provided, followed by a memorable conclusion.  Effective language should be utilized.  In addition, the nonverbal components should be effectively demonstrated, such as direct and communicative eye contact and good posture and poise.  Gestures should be motivated, comfortable, and enhance, not distract, from the presentation.  The speech should be free of lapses in memory or breaks in fluency, and credit should be given for speaking without notes.  Poor enunciation or incorrect grammar or pronunciation should be penalized.  In short, the speaker should make effective use of sound public speaking conventions.

     Speeches ranging from 8 to 10 minutes are recommended; deviations from the time limit should be penalized appropriately according to the severity of the violation.


 


 

     Persuasive Speaking:  An original speech by the student designed to inspire, reinforce or change the beliefs, attitudes, values or actions of the audience.  Audio-visual aids may or may not be used to supplement and reinforce the message.  Multiple sources should be used and cited in the development of the speech.  Minimal notes are permitted.  Maximum time limit is 10 minutes.

     Competitors are reminded of AFA-NIET General Rule 6-k, which states:  "Coaches and/or students must have available at the District and National NIET tournaments copies of all interpretive and original events used at the tournaments."  Further, the AFA Code of Ethics specifies that "Competitors are expected to bring to tournaments a copy of the original inclusive text along with the student's script."

 

     A persuasive speech should be an original work of the student designed to shape, reinforce, or change attitudes, beliefs, values, and/or behavior on the part of the audience.  The speech should present a significant problem with a realistic solution.  The audience should receive new information about the topic rather than simply hearing the repetition of known arguments on controversial issues common in society.  The best speeches discover a new dilemma facing a significant segment of society, and topics which directly affect or relate to the immediate audience are most effective.  If a very familiar issue is chosen, the topic should be explored in a new context so that the competitor does not risk presenting only well-known arguments and facts.  The speaker should explicate the problem in sufficient detail to create a need for the solution.  The body of the speech should be well organized, and use sound argument.  Many forms of evidence, appropriately documented, should be gathered from a wide variety of sources and integrated into the logical proof structure.  The speech should continually focus toward the action goal which the speaker wishes to actuate.  The action goal or goals should be both realistic and capable of being accomplished by the immediate audience.  The speaker should use a variety of motivational appeals such as logical, emotional, and ethical appeals to persuade the audience.

     All principles of effective presentation should be demonstrated.  The structure should include a readily identifiable introduction, body, and conclusion.  A memorable introduction should be followed by a thesis statement and an organizational preview.  Clear transitions should be made between main points so that the organizational structure is cumulatively reviewed and previewed.  An adequate summary should be provided, followed by a memorable conclusion.  Effective language should be utilized.  In addition, the nonverbal components should be effectively demonstrated, such as direct and communicative eye contact and good posture and poise.  Gestures should be motivated, comfortable, and enhance, not distract, from the presentation.  The speech should be free of lapses in memory or breaks in fluency, and credit should be given for speaking without notes.  Poor enunciation or incorrect grammar or pronunciation should be penalized.  In short, the speaker should make effective use of sound public speaking conventions.

     Speeches ranging from 8 to 10 minutes are recommended; deviations from the time limit should be penalized appropriately according to the severity of the violation.


 


 

     Communication Analysis:  An original speech by the student designed to offer an explanation and/or evaluation of a communication event such as a speech, speaker, movement, poem, poster, film, campaign, etc., through the use of rhetorical principles.  Audio-visual aids may or may not be used to supplement and reinforce the message.  Manuscripts are permitted.  Maximum time limit is 10 minutes.

     Competitors are reminded of AFA-NIET General Rule 6-k, which states:  "Coaches and/or students must have available at the District and National NIET tournaments copies of all interpretive and original events used at the tournaments."  Further, the AFA Code of Ethics specifies that "Competitors are expected to bring to tournaments a copy of the original inclusive text along with the student's script."

     Communication analysis tests the student's ability to analyze and to evaluate as well as to speak.  Any rhetorical communication act(s), event(s), movement(s), or campaign(s) may be the subject of the analysis.  Early in the speech, the student should justify the importance of the subject and establish an appropriate methodology for its evaluation.  The evaluative methodology should be clearly documented, explained, and justified.  Throughout the body of the presentation the evaluative methodology should be applied as a standard against which the subject is being measured.  The purpose of the student's speech should be to evaluate the effectiveness of the communication message, to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of the methodology being used, and/or to establish a new methodology for evaluating similar messages.  In other words, the focus of the speech should be more than a mere description.  Credit should be given for contributing to the knowledge of rhetoric; the student should draw conclusions about what has been learned as a result of his/her analysis.

     All principles of effective presentation should be demonstrated.  The structure should include a readily identifiable introduction, body, and conclusion.  A memorable introduction should be followed by a thesis statement and an organizational preview.  Clear transitions should be made between main points so that the organizational structure is cumulatively reviewed and previewed.  An adequate summary should be provided, followed by a memorable conclusion.  Effective language should be utilized.  In addition, the nonverbal components should be effectively demonstrated, such as direct and communicative eye contact and good posture and poise.  Gestures should be motivated, comfortable, and enhance, not distract, from the presentation.  The speech should be free of lapses in memory or breaks in fluency, and credit should be given for speaking without notes.  Poor enunciation or incorrect grammar or pronunciation should be penalized.  In short, the speaker should make effective use of sound public speaking conventions.

     Speeches ranging from 8 to 10 minutes are recommended; deviations from the time limit should be penalized appropriately according to the severity of the violation.



 

     After-Dinner Speaking:  An original, humorous speech by the student, designed to exhibit sound speech composition, thematic coherence, direct communicative public speaking skills, and good taste.  The speech should not resemble a night club act, an impersonation, or comic dialogue.  Audio-visual aids may or may not be used to supplement and reinforce the message.  Minimal notes are permitted.  Maximum time limit is 10 minutes.

     Competitors are reminded of AFA-NIET General Rule 6-k, which states:  "Coaches and/or students must have available at the District and National NIET tournaments copies of all interpretive and original events used at the tournaments."  Further, the AFA Code of Ethics specifies that "Competitors are expected to bring to tournaments a copy of the original inclusive text along with the student's script."

     An after dinner speech should be an original work of the student designed to make a serious point in a humorous way; care should be taken to avoid the appearance of being motivated solely by the wish to amuse.  An essentially serious speech which implements topic development with humor inherently related to the topic and appropriate to the situation is the goal of this event.  The serious point should be incorporated throughout the presentation rather than being arbitrarily added to the introduction and/or the conclusion.  A variety of types of humor should be integrated into the speech such as irony, puns, and reversals.  Off-color or offensive humor should be discouraged.  Visual aids, if used, should be effectively incorporated into the speech; no advantage should be given to expensive and elaborate visuals.

     All principles of effective presentation should be demonstrated.  The structure should include a readily identifiable introduction, body, and conclusion.  A memorable introduction should be followed by a thesis statement and an organizational preview.  Clear transitions should be made between main points so that the organizational structure is cumulatively reviewed and previewed.  An adequate summary should be provided, followed by a memorable conclusion.  Effective language should be utilized.  In addition, the nonverbal components should be effectively demonstrated, such as direct and communicative eye contact and good posture and poise.  In particular, the speaker should demonstrate a sense of comic timing.  Gestures should be motivated, comfortable, and enhance, not distract, from the presentation.  The speech should be free of lapses in memory or breaks in fluency, and credit should be given for speaking without notes.  Poor enunciation or incorrect grammar or pronunciation should be penalized.  In short, the speaker should make effective use of sound public speaking conventions.

     Speeches ranging from 8 to 10 minutes are recommended; deviations from the time limit should be penalized appropriately according to the severity of the violation.

 

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